ASL has three types of verbs: plain verbs, indicating verbs, classifiers. You probably know a few of them already:
Plain verbs, like LOVE or HAVE, are always signed the same way, no matter who is doing the action or how the action is performed.
For example, in the two sentences I LOVE YOU and YOU LOVE ME, the sign for LOVE is formed the same way. The sign for LOVE will never change direction based on who is doing the loving or who is being loved.
Indicating verbs, like CALL-BY-PHONE or SHOW, are sometimes called "directional" verbs.
Indicating verbs can change palm orientation or direction based on who is doing the action or how the action is being performed. For example, in the sentence I CALL YOU the sign for CALL starts at the signer and moves outwards. In the sentence YOU CALL ME, the sign for CALL starts out in space and ends near the signer. In this way it indicates who is performing the action.
Depicting verbs, like CL:1 (person) or CL: 2 (seated person), are often called "classifiers".
Classifiers can show what something looks like, how it moves, or where something is. Classifiers will be discussed in greater detail in a later chapter, but they follow the same syntax rules as plain and indicating verbs.
The basic word order in ASL is Subject-Verb-Object. Not all sentences will have objects, but all verbs will always have a subject before them. Often a tense marker (telling what time the sentence takes place in) will be at the beginning of the sentence. Here are a few examples:
In ASL, the subject cannot come after the verb. Here are some examples of "broken ASL" sentences:
Often, when people are signing they will change the order of their sentences by signing the object first, and the subject and verb last—Object-Subject-Verb—this is called "topicalization" or "topic-comment-structure". You may have heard someone tell you that ASL’s sentence structure is sometimes "Time-Topic-Comment", and this is what they meant. (This is a type of "inflection"—many languages have ways of inflecting sentences. You may read an article here on the different types of ASL inflection.)
When determining how to sign a sentence in ASL, the first thing you must ask yourself is "what is the topic – what is the ‘thing’ that I am talking about?" The topic may be a person, a place, a subject, an idea, a feeling. Once you’ve determined the topic, you then determine the comment – "what is it that I want to say about the topic?" Now that you’ve chosen your topic and comment, you are ready to sign a grammatically correct ASL sentence.
Usually for the object (aka the "topic"), the eyebrows will be raised slightly to indicate this inflection is occurring. Notice that the subject and the verb are still connected even though we have moved the object with topicalization.
Sometimes the topic and comment are interchangeable – meaning, there is more than one way to sign the sentence. You may choose your topic based on what makes sense visually. ASL is a visual language, so think of each sentence as a picture. What part of the picture would you draw first?
For example: For the sentence "I cut the flower", you must first establish a flower before you are able to cut it.
I cut the flower.
FLOWER I CUT
Another example: For the sentence "Ms Solanas is my teacher", you must first establish the teacher before you are able to describe her.
Ms Solanas is my teacher.
MY TEACHER NAME M-S S-O-L-A-N-A-S
Another example: For the sentence "The student is tall, handsome and has black hair", you must first establish the student before you are able to describe him.
The student is tall, handsome, and has black hair.
STUDENT TALL HANDSOME HAIR BLACK
Another example: For the sentence "My chemistry book in on the table", you must first establish the table before the book is able to be "placed on" it.
My chemistry book is on the table
TABLE MY CHEMISTRY BOOK WHERE THERE
Here's another example:
Jared passed a Math test.
MATH TEST J-A-R-E-D PASS
A more complicated example: For the sentence "My sister and I went to my mom’s house", you must first establish the house before you can go to it.
My sister and I went to my mom’s house.
MY MOM HER HOUSE MY SISTER ME TWO-OF-US GO
A more abstract example might be:
I am so happy because I passed the test. TEST PASS I HAPPY
Another abstract example might be:
I know that three plus five equals eight.
THREE PLUS FIVE EQUALS EIGHT I KNOW-THAT
Here's another abstract example:
I don't like that my brother and his girlfriend broke up.
MY BROTHER HIS GIRLFRIEND TWO-OF-THEM BREAK UP I DISLIKE
Remember, learning the grammatical structures of a second language is challenging. It takes time and requires practice and experience. Over time, it will begin to make sense to you.
English vs. ASL: English uses many articles, prepositions, participles (-ing words), etc that do not have 1 to 1 translations into ASL. For example, the, a, an, it, of, is, are, and am, do not have direct translations into ASL. When re-writing your sentences in an ASL gloss, you do not need to include these words.
HINT: In most cases (but not all) you should put any time concepts at the beginning of the sentence, even before the topic.
My grandparents are going to the mall on Friday.
FRIDAY M-A-L-L MY GRANDMA GRANDPA GO
Last Wednesday, my mother bought a new dress.
ONE-WEEK-AGO WEDNESDAY NEW DRESS MY MOM BUY